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Kalyan is a City in Kalyan City in Thane District of Maharashtra State, India. It belongs to Konkan region . It belongs to Konkan Division . It is located 26 KM towards East from District head quarters Thane. It is a City head quarter. Kalyan is a city in the part of the Konkan (or "Kokan") region included in Maharashtra state, and a major railway junction in the vicinity of Mumbai, India.
The city has been combined with its neighbor township of Dombivli to form the City Corporation of Kalyan-Dombivli.
It is considered a part of the Greater Mumbai metropolitan agglomeration, along with New Mumbai and the cities of Bhiwandi, Thane, Ulhasnagar,Ambarnath,Badlapur, Karjat and the Vasai-Virar region.
Kalyan city is located on the lower course of the Ulhas River with access to the Arabian Sea, via its two estuaries or creeks, the Thane Creek and the Vasai Creek. Kalyan is 48 km (30 mi) north-east of Mumbai. Overcrowding in Mumbai and incentives from the government to develop areas outside of Mumbai have attracted industrial business as well as industrial employees to Kalyan.
Kalyan was also considered at one time as one of the best places to live in the neighborhood of Mumbai, as it is far away from the pollution of the main city.
Kalyan Junction is a very important railway station for suburban travel as well as for long distance trains. The suburban or metropolitan railway passenger transport line coming in from Mumbai splits into two at Kalyan Junction, one heads south-east for Karjat and Khopoli towards Lonavla, Mahabaleshwar and Pune, the other heads north-east for Kasara towards Nashik.
On the eastern side of the city is a large industrial complex where electrical equipment, rayon, and dyes and other chemicals are manufactured. There are also a large number of textile-based cottage industries.
Kalyan was a port for more than two millennia until siltation and the rise of Mumbai eclipsed it and its sister ports, Sopara, Thane, Vasai, etc. The port was ruled by the Maurya and Gupta Empires of North India and later was part of a petty Konkan principality vassal to the Yadava Empire of Deogiri. Extensive ruins in Kalyan indicate the city's former magnificence. Kalyan Creek Image:170440263 bbd46361ee o..jpg After the Khilji sack of Deogiri, the Yadavas fled into the Konkan region and set up their base at Mahikawati, modern Mahim; Kalyan was a part of the brief Yadava state of Mahikawati. Mahikawati was conquered by the Muslims who set up petty coastal principalities.
As a major entrepot, Kalyan soon became, by 530-535 A.D. the seat of a Nestorian bishop (). The Churches of South Asia which were ecclesiastically dependent on the Church of Assyria and Chaldea in Mesopotamia or modern Iraq, lands then subject to the Persian Empire (Sassanians), early fell with it into the Nestorian Schism and used Pahlavi as the liturgical language. The Konkan, Tulunad and Malabar Coasts of South Asia are marked by stone crosses with Pahlavi inscriptions.
During the Middle Ages, Pope John XX, headquartered at Avignon, sent a group of five missionaries to the Mongol Emperor at Khanbalik, modern Beijing in China, under the Dominican Fray Giordano or Jordanus. On their way, they picked up a novice, Demetrius, from West Asia and then travelled through South Asia, succoring the Nestorian Christians there, who were hard pressed by the Muslims. Giordano left his colleagues at Kalyan and travelled back north to Gujarat. During his absence, the Muslim governor and qazi of Thane summoned the missionaries and demanded submission to Islam; when they refused, they were murdered (1321). The local Nestorians collected their remains and buried them; Giordano, on his return, took them to Sopara and buried them there. The Muslim Arab sultan of Gujarat, when informed of this development, summoned his governor of Thane and the Qazi; the Qazi fled but the governor was executed for his actions that militated against international commerce. When a later missionary, Oderic of Pordenone (), visited Thane in 1324-1325, he collected their remains and moved on to China.
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